Research in 90sec’s
How is it that medical education supervisors determine that a trainee needs to be failed?

How is it that medical education supervisors determine that a trainee needs to be failed?

March 23, 2022

How is it that medical education supervisors determine that a trainee needs to be failed?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Gingerich and colleagues. In previous work they identified the phase of disbelief that medical education supervisors go through prior to identifying underperformance. Now in this paper, they describe the shift from disbelieving underperformance to recognizing failure, which is akin to the psychological process of reaching a tipping point.

 

Full citation:

Gingerich, A., Sebok‐Syer, S. S., Lingard, L., & Watling, C. J. (2022). The shift from disbelieving underperformance to recognising failure: A tipping point model. Medical education, 56(4), 395-406.

What did we learn from the resurgence of Ebola in 2021?

What did we learn from the resurgence of Ebola in 2021?

March 16, 2022

What did we learn from the resurgence of Ebola in 2021?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Keita and colleagues who studied the resurgence of Ebola in Guinea in 2021.  They showed how even almost five years after the declaration of the end of an epidemic, new outbreaks can still occur. And in this case, not because of transmission from animals, but rather from humans who were infected in a previous epidemic.

 

Full citation:

Keita AK, Koundouno FR, Faye M, Düx A, Hinzmann J, Diallo H, Ayouba A, Le Marcis F, Soropogui B, Ifono K, Diagne MM. Resurgence of Ebola virus in 2021 in Guinea suggests a new paradigm for outbreaks. Nature. 2021 Sep;597(7877):539-43.

How is it that two people who speak two different languages may look like they are having a conversation?

How is it that two people who speak two different languages may look like they are having a conversation?

March 9, 2022

How is it that two people who speak two different languages may look like they are having a conversation?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Cwiek and colleagues who conducted online and in-person experiments with 900 participants who spoke 28 languages. They asked them to listen to a set of sounds and guess what they represented. And they found how certain sounds, also known as vocalizations, can be recognizable to people around the world.

 

Full citation:

Ćwiek A, Fuchs S, Draxler C, Asu EL, Dediu D, Hiovain K, Kawahara S, Koutalidis S, Krifka M, Lippus P, Lupyan G. Novel vocalizations are understood across cultures. Scientific Reports. 2021 May 12;11(1):1-2.

Why is it that a remarkably small number of songs become so popular?

Why is it that a remarkably small number of songs become so popular?

March 2, 2022

Why is it that a remarkably small number of songs become so popular?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Rosati and colleagues who found that download count time series for many popular songs resemble infectious disease epidemic curves. This, therefore, suggests that songs become popular in a similar fashion as infectious diseases are transmitted from person to person.

 

Full citation: 

Rosati, D. P., Woolhouse, M. H., Bolker, B. M., & Earn, D. J. (2021). Modelling song popularity as a contagious process. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 477(2253), 20210457.

How could increasing our intake of ”blue” foods help our environment?

How could increasing our intake of ”blue” foods help our environment?

February 23, 2022

How could increasing our intake of "blue" foods help our environment?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Gephart and colleagues who performed a comprehensive assessment of the environmental pressures for more than 2,500 fisheries and aquaculture farms. They found that farmed clams, oysters, and seaweeds, for instance, generate the lowest greenhouse emissions, followed by sardines. As such, blue foods present an opportunity to improve nutrition with lower environmental burdens.

 

Full citation:

Gephart, J. A., Henriksson, P. J., Parker, R. W., Shepon, A., Gorospe, K. D., Bergman, K., ... & Troell, M. (2021). Environmental performance of blue foods. Nature, 597(7876), 360-365.

How can blue foods help tackling malnutrition?

How can blue foods help tackling malnutrition?

February 16, 2022

How can blue foods help tackling malnutrition? Part 1

In this episode, I feature a paper by Golden and colleagues who provide a thorough assessment of the nutritional value of aquatic or blue foods. They found that some blue foods are actually nutritionally better than beef, lamb, chicken or pork. However to increase their intake, economic strategies are needed to foster production and therefore decrease prices.

 

Full citation:

Golden, C. D., Koehn, J. Z., Shepon, A., Passarelli, S., Free, C. M., Viana, D. F., ... & Thilsted, S. H. (2021). Aquatic foods to nourish nations. Nature, 598(7880), 315-320.

How does misuse of colour jeopardize science communication?

How does misuse of colour jeopardize science communication?

February 8, 2022

How does misuse of colour jeopardize science communication?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Crameri and colleagues who bring awareness to the critical role that colour plays in science communication. In particular, they warn us about the ways in which misuse of colour in figures of scientific papers can distort meaning and therefore lead to manipulation of data.

 

Full citation:

Crameri, F., Shephard, G. E., & Heron, P. J. (2020). The misuse of colour in science communication. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-10.

How long does it take for a voice to become familiar?

How long does it take for a voice to become familiar?

February 2, 2022

How long does it take for a voice to become familiar?

In this episode I feature a paper by Holmes and colleagues who investigated the extent to which recognition and intelligibility of a voice improve after different lengths of voice training. And they found that speech intelligibility can be dramatically improved with as little as 1 hr of training. An important insight for training aircraft pilots, for instance, who need to perceive speech accurately despite the noises around them.

 

Full citation:

Holmes, E., To, G., & Johnsrude, I. S. (2021). How Long Does It Take for a Voice to Become Familiar? Speech Intelligibility and Voice Recognition Are Differentially Sensitive to Voice Training. Psychological Science, 0956797621991137.

How are early adulthood depression and dementia associated?

How are early adulthood depression and dementia associated?

January 26, 2022

How are early adulthood depression and dementia associated?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Brenowitz and colleagues who used innovative statistical methods to discover that having depression in your 20s-40s increases the odds of suffering from dementia later in life. Hence, they highlight the importance of bringing happiness to your life in early adulthood.

 

Full citation:

Willa D. Brenowitz, Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Eric Vittinghoff, Sherita H. Golden, Annette L. Fitzpatrick, Kristine Yaffe. Depressive Symptoms Imputed Across the Life Course Are Associated with Cognitive Impairment and Cognitive Decline. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 2021; 1 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-210588

 

How can origami help us think about storage space or emergency shelters?

How can origami help us think about storage space or emergency shelters?

January 19, 2022

How can origami help us think about storage space or emergency shelters?

In this episode, I feature a paper by Melancon and colleagues who explained how they drew on origami - the Japanese art of paper folding - for engineering design. In their work, origami principles served as inspiration for designing and building inflatable structures that stay in place after deployment and that can be switched between a variety of shapes. A desirable property for emergency shelters and even for space exploration.

 

Full citation: 

Melancon, D., Gorissen, B., García-Mora, C. J., Hoberman, C., & Bertoldi, K. (2021). Multistable inflatable origami structures at the metre scale. Nature, 592(7855), 545-550.

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